80 entries tagged with #GitHub
Performance analysis and tuning of SPARKNaClThis blog goes into the details of both measuring and improving the runtime performance of SPARKNaCl on a real "bare metal" embedded target, and comparing results with those for the original "TweetNaCl" C implementation.
by Léo Germond
How To: GNAT Pro with Docker
Using GNAT Pro with containerization technologies, such as Docker, is so easy, a whale could do it!
Ada on any ARM Cortex-M device, in just a couple minutesIn this blog post I want to present a new tool that allows one to very quickly and easily start Ada programming on any ARM Cortex-M or RISC-V microcontroller.
by Paul Butcher
Finding Vulnerabilities using Advanced Fuzz testing and AFLplusplus v3.0
Some of you may recall an AdaCore blog post written in 2017 by Thales engineer Lionel Matias titled "Leveraging Ada Run-Time Checks with Fuzz Testing in AFL". This insightful post took us on a journey of discovery as Lionel demonstrated how Ada programs, compiled using GNAT Pro and an adapted assembler pass can be subjected to advanced fuzz testing. In order to achieve this Lionel demonstrated how instrumentation of the generated assembly code around jump and label instructions, could be subjected to grey-box (path aware) fuzz testing (using the original AFL v2.52b as the fuzz engine). Lionel explained how applying the comprehensive spectrum of Ada runtime checks, in conjunction with Ada's strong typing and contract based programming, enhanced the capabilities of fuzz testing beyond the abilities of other languages. Ada's advanced runtime checking, for exceptions like overflows, and the scrutiny of Ada's design by contract assertions allow corner case bugs to be found whilst also utilising fuzz testing to verify functional correctness.
Make with Ada 2020: Ada Robot Car With Neural NetworkGuillermo Perez's project won a finalist prize in the Make with Ada 2019/20 competition. This project was originally posted on Hackster.io here. For those interested in participating in the 2020/21 competition, registration is now open and project submissions will be accepted until Jan 31st 2021, register here.
First beta release of Alire, the package manager for Ada/SPARKA few years ago we realized that having a package manager for the Ada/SPARK community would be a game changer. Since then, AdaCore has been sponsoring and contributing to the Alire project created by Alejandro Mosteo from the Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza. With this blog post I want to introduce Alire and explain why this project is important for the `Ada`/`SPARK` community.
Make With Ada 2020: High Integrity Sumobot
Blaine Osepchuk's project won a finalist prize in the Make with Ada 2019/20 competition. This project was originally posted on Hackster.io here. For those interested in participating in the 2020/21 competition, registration is now open and project submissions will be accepted until Jan 31st 2021, register here.
Make with Ada 2020: CHIP-8 InterpreterLaurent Zhu's and Damien Grisonnet's project was accomplished for the EPITA Ada courses and won a finalist prize in the Make with Ada 2019/20 competition.
by Fabien Chouteau , Emma Adby
AdaCore Code of Conduct
Starting today, AdaCore has put in place a Code of Conduct (CoC) to ensure a positive environment for everyone willing and wanting to interact with us. With the development of this blog, our twitter accounts, and our GitHub corporate account, there is more and more communication between AdaCore and a number of communities. In this Code of Conduct we want to explain how we are going to moderate the AdaCore-maintained community spaces with the goal of maintaining a welcoming, friendly environment.
Code Obfuscator for Ada using Libadalang and SPARKA code obfuscator is a method of sharing coding discussions of real-world examples without giving away proprietary or classified information. This article shows an example of an Ada obfuscator, written in the SPARK language and using the Libadalang library to intelligently hide names and text within the source.
by Emma Adby
Make with Ada 2020: LoRaDa := Ada + LoRa;Hedley Rainnie's project combines 6 different SoCs all programmed in Ada performing as a LoRa network. He also showcases a BLE bridge to a LoRa server. His project came about when him and his wife were musing about how to detect and deter unwanted garden visitors. This ongoing project won a finalist prize in the 2019/20 Make with Ada competition.
by Emma Adby
Make with Ada 2020: Disaster Management with Smart Circuit BreakerShahariar's project ensures safety against electrical fire or shock during an earthquake, flood, gas leakage or fire breakout by disconnecting the mains with a smart circuit breaker. Additionally, this project won a finalist prize in the 2019/20 Make with Ada competition.
by Emma Adby
Make with Ada 2020: The SmartBase - IoT Adjustable BedJohn Singleton's The SmartBase makes your existing adjustable bed safer and easier to use by adding voice control and safe (and fun!) LED underbed lighting! Additionally, this project won first place prize in the 2019/20 Make with Ada competition.
by Jon Andrew
CuBit: A General-Purpose Operating System in SPARK/AdaLast year, I started evaluating programming languages for a formally-verified operating system. I've been developing software for a while, but only recently began work in high integrity software development and formal methods. There are several operating system projects, like the SeL4 microkernel and the Muen separation kernel, that make use of formal verification. But I was interested in using a formally-verified language to write a general-purpose OS - an environment for abstracting the underlying hardware while acting as an arbiter for running the normal applications we're used to.
by Pat Rogers
From Ada to Platinum SPARK: A Case Study for Reusable Bounded StacksThis blog entry describes the transformation of an Ada stack ADT into a completely proven SPARK implementation that relies on static verification instead of run-time enforcement of the abstraction’s semantics. We will prove that there are no reads of unassigned variables, no array indexing errors, no range errors, no numeric overflow errors, no attempts to push onto a full stack, no attempts to pop from an empty stack, that subprogram bodies implement their functional requirements, and so on. As a result, we get a maximally robust implementation of a reusable stack abstraction providing all the facilities required for production use.
Ada on the ESP8266Not long ago, AdaCore published its LLVM frontend for GNAT. Also quite recently Espressif updated their LLVM backend to LLVM 9 which also happens to be the LLVM version of GNAT. This gave me to the idea to try out if LLVMs promise of providing modular and reusable toolchain technologies is true.
by Martyn Pike
A Trivial File Transfer Protocol Server written in AdaFor an upcoming project, I needed a simple way of transferring binary files over an Ethernet connection with minimal (if any at all) user interaction. A protocol that's particularly appropriate for this kind of usage is the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP).
Proving properties of constant-time crypto code in SPARKNaClOver the last few months, I developed a SPARK version of the TweetNaCl cryptographic library. This was made public on GitHub in February 2020, under the 2-clause BSD licence. This blog entry goes into a bit more technical detail on one particular aspect of the project: the challenge of re-writing and verifying "constant time" algorithms using SPARK.
by Maxim Reznik
Android application with Ada and WebAssembly
Having previously shown how to create a Web application in Ada, it's not so difficult to create an Android application in Ada. Perhaps the simplest way is to install Android Studio. Then just create a new project and choose "Empty Activity". Open the layout, delete TextView and put WebView instead.
by Pat Rogers
Making an RC Car with Ada and SPARK
As a demonstration for the use of Ada and SPARK in very small embedded targets, I created a remote-controlled (RC) car using Lego NXT Mindstorms motors and sensors but without using the Lego computer or Lego software. I used an ARM Cortex System-on-Chip board for the computer, and all the code -- the control program, the device drivers, everything -- is written in Ada. Over time, I’ve upgraded some of the code to be in SPARK. This blog post describes the hardware, the software, the SPARK upgrades, and the repositories that are used and created for this purpose.
A Further Expedition into Libadalang: Save Time with Libadalang.Helpers.App
Martyn’s recent blog post showed small programs based on Libadalang to find uses of access types in Ada sources. Albeit short, these programs need to take care of all the tedious logistics around processing Ada sources: find the files to work on, create a Libadalang analysis context, use it to read the source files, etc. Besides, they are not very convenient to run:
Using GNAT-LLVM to target Ada to WebAssembly
The GNAT-LLVM project provides an opportunity to port Ada to new platforms, one of which is WebAssembly. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the porting of Ada and the development of bindings to use Web API provided by the browser directly from Ada applications.
Ada on a FeatherI was quite happy to see AdaFruit release their first Feather format board including a micro-controller with plenty of Ada support, the STM32F4. I bought a board right away and implemented some support code for it.
by Martyn Pike
An Expedition into Libadalang
I’ve been telling Ada developers for a while now that Libadalang will open up the possibility of more-easily writing Ada source code analysis tools. (You can read more about Libadalang here and here and can also access the project on Github.)
RecordFlux: From Message Specifications to SPARK CodeHandling binary data is hard. Errors in parsers routinely lead to critical security vulnerabilities. In this post we show how the RecordFlux toolset eases the creation of formally verified binary parsers in SPARK.
Learning SPARK via Conway's Game of LifeHow I learned to write SPARK-provable code using Conway's Game Of Life
Combining GNAT with LLVM
Presenting the GNAT LLVM projectAt AdaCore labs, we have been working for some time now on combining the GNAT Ada front-end with a different code generator than GCC.
by Yannick Moy , Raphaël Amiard , Tucker Taft
RFCs for Ada and SPARK evolution now on GitHubInterested in participating in the evolution of the Ada or SPARK languages? We have something for you.
by Claire Dross
Using Pointers in SPARKIn this blog post, I will present one of the most interesting additions to the community 2019 version of SPARK: pointer support. One of the core assumption in SPARK has always been the absence of aliasing, so adding pointers without breaking this assumption was quite a challenge. I will explain how this was achieved using an ownership model for pointers (like is done in Rust) through small examples.
by Boran Car
Bringing Ada To MultiZoneC is the dominant language of the embedded world, almost to the point of exclusivity. Due to its age, and its goal of being a “portable assembler”, it deliberately lacks type-safety, opening up exploit vectors. Proposed solutions are partitioning the application into smaller intercommunicating blocks, designed with the principle of least privilege in mind; and rewriting the application in a type-safe language. We believe that both approaches are complementary and want to show you how to combine separation and isolation provided by MultiZone together with iteratively rewriting parts in Ada. We will take the MultiZone SDK demo and rewrite one of the zones in Ada.
by Rob Tice
AdaFractal Part1: Ada with a Portable GUIThe is the first part of a multiple part post that covers the development of the AdaFractal project. The idea was to create fractals in Ada. Here we will cover how to use AWS to create a flexible and portable way to display the generated fractals without using bulky graphics libraries.
Ada on FPGAs with PicoRV32When I bought the TinyFPGA-BX board, I thought it would be an opportunity to play a little bit with FPGA, learn some Verilog or VHDL. But when I discovered that it was possible to have a RISC-V CPU on it, I knew I had to run Ada code on it.
by Fabien Chouteau , Emma Adby , Yannick Moy
Learn.adacore.com is hereWe are very proud to announce the availability of our new Ada and SPARK learning platform learn.adacore.com, which will replace AdaCoreU(niversity) e-learning platform. Learn all about it in this blog post.
by Yannick Moy
Security Agency Uses SPARK for Secure USB KeyANSSI, the French national security agency, has published the results of their work since 2014 on designing and implementing an open-hardware & open-source USB key that provides defense-in-depth against vulnerabilities on the USB hardware, architecture, protocol and software stack. In this project called WooKey, Ada and SPARK are key components for the security of the platform. This is a very compelling demontration of both the usability and the power of safe languages and formal verification to develop secure systems.
Taking on a Challenge in SPARK
Last week, the programmer Hillel posted a challenge (the link points to a partial postmortem of the provided solutions) on Twitter for someone to prove a correct implementation of three small programming problems: Leftpad, Unique, and Fulcrum.
PolyORB now lives on Github
PolyORB, AdaCore's versatile distribution middleware, now lives on Github. Its new home is https://github.com/AdaCore/polyorb
by Rob Tice
SPARKZumo Part 2: Integrating the Arduino Build Environment Into GPSThis is part #2 of the SPARKZumo series of blog posts. This post covers the build system that was used to build the SPARKZumo project and how to automate the process in GPS.
by Rob Tice
SPARKZumo Part 1: Ada and SPARK on Any Platform
So you want to use SPARK for your next microcontroller project? Great choice! All you need is an Ada 2012 ready compiler and the SPARK tools. But what happens when an Ada 2012 compiler isn’t available for your architecture?
Ada on the micro:bit
Updated July 2018
by Yannick Moy
Tokeneer Fully Verified with SPARK 2014Tokeneer is a software for controlling physical access to a secure enclave by means of a fingerprint sensor. This software was created by Altran (Praxis at the time) in 2003 using the previous generation of SPARK language and tools, as part of a project commissioned by the NSA to investigate the rigorous development of critical software using formal methods. The project artefacts, including the source code, were released as open source in 2008. Tokeneer was widely recognized as a milestone in industrial formal verification. We recently transitioned this software to SPARK 2014, and it allowed us to go beyond what was possible with the previous SPARK technology. We have also shown how security vulnerabilities introduced in the code can be detected by formal verification.
Bitcoin blockchain in Ada: Lady Ada meets Satoshi Nakamoto
Bitcoin is getting a lot of press recently, but let's be honest, that's mostly because a single bitcoin worth 800 USD in January 2017 was worth almost 20,000 USD in December 2017. However, bitcoin and its underlying blockchain are beautiful technologies that are worth a closer look. Let’s take that look with our Ada hat on!
by Felix Krause
The Road to a Thick OpenGL Binding for Ada: Part 1
This blog post is part one of a tutorial based on the OpenGLAda project and will cover some the background of the OpenGL API and the basic steps involved in importing platform-dependent C functions.
Leveraging Ada Run-Time Checks with Fuzz Testing in AFLFuzzing is a very popular bug finding method. The concept, very simple, is to continuously inject random (garbage) data as input of a software component, and wait for it to crash. If, like me, you find writing robustness test tedious and not very efficient in finding bugs, you might want to try fuzzing your Ada code.Here's a recipe to fuzz-test your Ada code, using American Fuzzy Lop and all the runtime checks your favorite Ada compiler can provide.Let's see (quickly) how AFL works, then jump right into fuzzing 3 open-source Ada libraries: ZipAda, AdaYaml, and GNATCOLL.JSON.
Cross-referencing Ada with Libadalang
Libadalang has come a long way since the last time we blogged about it. In the past 6 months, we have been working tirelessly on name resolution, a pretty complicated topic in Ada, and it is finally ready enough that we feel ready to blog about it, and encourage people to try it out.
Make with Ada 2017- A "Swiss Army Knife" Watch
SummaryThe Hexiwear is an IoT wearable development board that has two NXP Kinetis microcontrollers. One is a K64F (Cortex-M4 core) for running the main embedded application software. The other one is a KW40 (Cortex M0+ core) for running a wireless connectivity stack (e.g., Bluetooth BLE or Thread). The Hexiwear board also has a rich set of peripherals, including OLED display, accelerometer, magnetometer, gryroscope, pressure sensor, temperature sensor and heart-rate sensor. This blog article describes the development of a "Swiss Army Knife" watch on the Hexiwear platform. It is a bare-metal embedded application developed 100% in Ada 2012, from the lowest level device drivers all the way up to the application-specific code, for the Hexiwear's K64F microcontroller. I developed Ada drivers for Hexiwear-specific peripherals from scratch, as they were not supported by AdaCore's Ada drivers library. Also, since I wanted to use the GNAT GPL 2017 Ada compiler but the GNAT GPL distribution did not include a port of the Ada Runtime for the Hexiwear board, I also had to port the GNAT GPL 2017 Ada runtime to the Hexiwear. All this application-independent code can be leveraged by anyone interested in developing Ada applications for the Hexiwear wearable device.
Make with Ada 2017: Brushless DC Motor ControllerThis project involves the design of a software platform that provides a good basis when developing motor controllers for brushless DC motors (BLDC/PMSM). It consist of a basic but clean and readable implementation of a sensored field oriented control algorithm. Included is a logging feature that will simplify development and allows users to visualize what is happening. The project shows that Ada successfully can be used for a bare-metal project that requires fast execution.
by Yannick Moy
Prove in the CloudWe have put together a byte (8 bits) of examples of SPARK code on a server in the cloud. The benefit with this webpage is that anyone can now experiment live with SPARK without installing first the toolset. Something particularly interesting for academics is that all the code for this widget is open source. So you can setup your own proof server for hands-on sessions, with your own exercises, in a matter of minutes.
Highlighting Ada with Libadalang
While we are working very hard on semantic analysis in Libadalang, it is already possible to leverage its lexical and syntactic analyzers. A useful example for this is a syntax highlighter.
Pretty-Printing Ada Containers with GDB Scripts
When things don’t work as expected, developers usually do one of two things: either add debug prints to their programs, or run their programs under a debugger. Today we’ll focus on the latter activity.
by Yannick Moy
Applied Formal Logic: Searching in StringsA friend pointed me to recent posts by Tommy M. McGuire, in which he describes how Frama-C can be used to functionally prove a brute force version of string search, and to find a previously unknown bug in a faster version of string search called quick search. Frama-C and SPARK share similar history, techniques and goals. So it was tempting to redo the same proofs on equivalent code in SPARK, and completing them with a functional proof of the fixed version of quick search. This is what I'll present in this post.
by Rob Tice
The Adaroombot ProjectThe Adaroombot project consists of an iRobot CreateⓇ 2 and Ada running on a Raspberry Pi with a Linux OS. This is a great Intro-to-Ada project as it focuses on a control algorithm and a simple serial communications protocol. The iRobot CreateⓇ 2 platform was originally design for STEM education and has great documentation and support - making it very easy to create a control application using Ada. This blog looks at the creation of the project and some cool features of Ada that were learned along the way.
Ada on the first RISC-V microcontroller
Updated July 2018
by Yannick Moy
Research Corner - FLOSS Glider Software in SPARKTwo years ago, we redeveloped the code of a small quadcopter called Crazyflie in SPARK, as a proof-of-concept to show it was possible to prove absence of run-time errors (no buffer overflows, not division by zero, etc.) on such code. The researchers Martin Becker and Emanuel Regnath have raised the bar by developing the code for the autopilot of a small glider in SPARK in three months only. Their paper and slides are available, and they have released their code as FLOSS for others to use/modify/enhance!
DIY Coffee Alarm ClockA few weeks ago one of my colleagues shared this kickstarter project : The Barisieur. It’s an alarm clock coffee maker, promising to wake you up with a freshly brewed cup of coffee every morning. I jokingly said “just give me an espresso machine and I can do the same”. Soon after, the coffee machine is in my office. Now it is time to deliver :)
by Yannick Moy , Nicolas Roche
A Usable Copy-Paste Detector in A Few Lines of PythonAfter we created lightweight checkers based on the recent Libadalang technology developed at AdaCore, a colleague gave us the challenge of creating a copy-paste detector based on Libadalang. It turned out to be both easier than anticipated, and much more efficient and effective than we could have hoped for. In the end, we hope to use this new detector to refactor the codebase of some of our tools, and we expect to integrate it in our IDEs.
by Yannick Moy
VerifyThis Challenge in SPARKThis year again, the VerifyThis competition took place as part of ETAPS conferences. This is the occasion for builders and users of formal program verification platforms to use their favorite tools on common challenges. The first challenge this year was a good fit for SPARK, as it revolves around proving properties of an imperative sorting procedure. In this post, I am using this challenge to show how one can reach different levels of software assurance with SPARK.
GPS for bare-metal developers
In my previous blog article, I exposed some techniques that helped me rewrite the Crazyflie’s firmware from C into Ada and SPARK 2014, in order to improve its safety.
by Yannick Moy
GNATprove Tips and Tricks: Proving the Ghost Common Divisor (GCD)Euclid's algorithm for computing the greatest common divisor of two numbers is one of the first ones we learn in school, and also one of the first algorithms that humans devised. So it's quite appealing to try to prove it with an automatic proving toolset like SPARK. It turns out that proving it automatically is not so easy, just like understanding why it works is not so easy. In this post, I am using ghost code to prove correct implementations of the GCD, starting from a naive linear search algorithm and ending with Euclid's algorithm.
GNATcoverage moves to GitHub
Following the current trend, the GNATcoverage project moves to GitHub! Our new address is: https://github.com/AdaCore/gnatcoverage
by Claire Dross
Research Corner - Auto-active Verification in SPARKGNATprove performs auto-active verification, that is, verification is done automatically, but usually requires annotations by the user to succeed. In SPARK, annotations are most often given in the form of contracts (pre and postconditions). But some language features, in particular ghost code, allow proof guidance to be much more involved. In a paper we are presenting at NASA Formal Methods symposium 2017, we describe how an imperative red black tree implementation in SPARK was verified using intensive auto-active verification.
by Pat Rogers
Getting started with the Ada Drivers Library device drivers
The Ada Drivers Library (ADL) is a collection of Ada device drivers and examples for ARM-based embedded targets. The library is maintained by AdaCore, with development originally (and predominantly) by AdaCore personnel but also by the Ada community at large. It is available on GitHub and is licensed for both proprietary and non-proprietary use.
Going After the Low Hanging BugAt AdaCore, we have a strong expertise in deep static analysis tools (CodePeer and SPARK), and we have been relying on the compiler GNAT and our coding standard checker GNATcheck to deal with more syntactic or weakly-semantic checks. The recent Libadalang technology, developed at AdaCore, provided us with an ideal basis to develop specialized light-weight static analyzers. As an experiment, we implemented two simple checkers using the Python binding of Libadalang. The results on our own codebase were eye-opening: we found a dozen bugs in the codebases of the tools we develop at AdaCore (including the compiler and static analyzers).
Introducing LibadalangAdaCore is working on a host of tools that works on Ada code. The compiler, GNAT, is the most famous and prominent one, but it is far from being the only one. At AdaCore, we already have several other tools to process Ada code: the ASIS library, GNAT2XML, the GPS IDE. A realization of the past years, however, has been that we were lacking a unified solution to process code that is potentially evolving, potentially incorrect Ada code. Hence Libadalang.
Make with Ada: DIY instant cameraThere are moments in life where you find yourself with an AdaFruit thermal printer in one hand, and an OpenMV camera in the other.
Make With Ada Winners Announced!
Judging for the first annual Make with Ada competition has come to an end and we can now reveal the results.
Unity & AdaUsing Ada technologies to develop video games doesn’t sound like an an obvious choice - although it seems like there could be an argument to be made. The reverse, however, opens some more straightforward perspectives.
GNAT Programming Studio (GPS) on GitHubThe GPS source repository has been published on GitHub. This post briefly describes how you can access it, and hopefully contribute.
Introducing the Make With Ada competition!
If you’ve been looking for a way to start your next embedded project in Ada or SPARK. Then, look no further than the Make with Ada competition!
Make with Ada: ARM Cortex-M CNC controller
I started this project more than a year ago. It was supposed to be the first Make with Ada project but it became the most challenging from both, the hardware and software side.
Make with Ada: Candy dispenser, with a twist...
A few months ago, my colleague Rebecca installed a candy dispenser in our kitchen here at AdaCore. I don’t remember how exactly, but I was challenged to make it more… fun.
Porting the Ada Runtime to a new ARM boardA step by step tutorial to adapt the ARM runtime to new MCUs/boards.
Make with Ada: Formal proof on my wristWhen the Pebble Time kickstarter went through the roof, I looked at the specification and noticed the watch was running on an STM32F4, an ARM cortex-M4 CPU which is supported by GNAT. So I backed the campaign, first to be part of the cool kids and also to try some Ada hacking on the device.
by Emma Adby
Modernizing Adacore's Open-Source Involvement
Through the adoption of GitHub we have taken our first step on the way to having a more collaborative and dynamic interaction with, both our users and open source technologies.
by Yannick Moy
New Book About SPARK 2014I am very pleased to announce that a book is now available for those who want to learn formal verification with SPARK 2014. This book was written by Prof. John McCormick from University of Northern Iowa and Prof. Peter Chapin from Vermont Technical College. We've been interacting a lot with them since they started in 2013, and the result of these interactions is quite satisfying!
Make with Ada : From bits to music
I started out as an electronic musician, so one of my original motivations when I learnt programming was so that I could eventually *program* the sounds I wanted rather than just use already existing software to do it.