AdaCore Blog

17 entries tagged with #Containers

by Pat Rogers

From Ada to Platinum SPARK: A Case Study for Reusable Bounded Stacks

This blog entry describes the transformation of an Ada stack ADT into a completely proven SPARK implementation that relies on static verification instead of run-time enforcement of the abstraction’s semantics. We will prove that there are no reads of unassigned variables, no array indexing errors, no range errors, no numeric overflow errors, no attempts to push onto a full stack, no attempts to pop from an empty stack, that subprogram bodies implement their functional requirements, and so on. As a result, we get a maximally robust implementation of a reusable stack abstraction providing all the facilities required for production use.

#SPARK    #Ada    #Transitioning to SPARK   

by Allan Ascanius , Per Dalgas Jakobsen

Winning DTU RoboCup with Ada and SPARK

The Danish Technical University has a yearly RoboCup where autonomous vehicles solve a number of challenges. We participated with RoadRunner, a 3D printed robot with wheel suspension, based on the BeagleBone Blue ARM-based board and the Pixy 1 camera with custom firmware enabling real-time line detection. Code is written in Ada and formally proved correct with SPARK at Silver level.

#Robotics    #Ada    #SPARK   

by Florian Schanda

SPARKSMT - An SMTLIB Processing Tool Written in SPARK - Part I

Today I will write the first article in a short series about the development of an SMTLIB processing tool in SPARK. Instead of focusing on features, I intend to focus on the how I have proved absence of run-time errors in the name table and lexer. I had two objectives: show absence of run-time errors, and do not write useless defensive code. Today's blog will be about the name table, a data structure found in many compilers that can map strings to a unique integer and back. The next blog post will talk about the lexical analyzer.

#Dev Projects    #Formal Verification    #SPARK   

by Yannick Moy

Using SPARK to Prove AoRTE in Robot Navigation Software

Correctness of robot software is a challenge. Just proving the absence of run-time errors (AoRTE) in robot software is a challenge big enough that even NASA has not solved it. Researchers have used SPARK to do precisely that for 3 well-known robot navigation algorithms. Their results will be presented at the major robotics conference IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2014) this coming September.

#Formal Verification    #SPARK    #Robotics   

by Claire Dross

External Axiomatizations: a Trip Into SPARK’s Internals

There are cases expressing all the specification of a package in SPARK is either impossible (for example if you need to link them to elements of the mathematical world, like trigonometry functions), cumbersome (especially if they require concepts that cannot easily be described using contracts, like transitivity, counting, summation...), or simply inefficient, for big and complex data structures like containers for example. In these cases, a user can provide directly a manually written Why3 translation for an Ada package using a feature named external axiomatizations. Coming up with this manual translation requires both a knowledge of the WhyML language and a minimal understanding of GNATprove's mechanisms and is therefore reserved to advanced users.

#Formal Verification    #SPARK   

by Yannick Moy

GNATprove Tips and Tricks: How to Write Loop Invariants

Having already presented in previous posts why loop invariants are necessary for formal verification of programs with loops, and what loop invariants are necessary for various loops, we detail here a methodology for how users can come up with the right loop invariants for their loops. This methodology in four steps allows users to progressively add the necessary information in their loop invariants, with the tool GNATprove providing the required feedback at each step on whether the information provided is sufficient or not.

#Formal Verification    #SPARK